Oral Medicine

  • Introduction

    Corresponds to the diagnosis and treatment of the lesions in the oral cavity and associated structures. Various diseases that manifest in the oral cavity.

    The etiology of diseases of the maxillofacial complex can be:

    tooth darkInfectious (virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa);

    tooth darkNeoplasm (benign or malignant)

    tooth darkTrauma (physical, chemical)

    tooth darkImmune or autoimmune (allergic processes and autoimmune diseases)

    tooth darkOther.

    The treatment can be surgical. May be a biopsy is needed for a diagnose of the lesion. This biopsy consists in removing part or the total lesion so it can be analysed in a lab for further treatment.

    Pathology of the salivary glands

    The salivary glands are located near the oral cavity and the main objective the production and secretion of saliva. In addition to starting the digestive process, saliva also helps oral hygiene.

    Several diseases can affect the salivary glands, including calculations on the salivary ducts, causing pain and swelling in the salivary gland and sialodenitis which are inflammation of the salivary glands. Tumors can occur in the salivary glands. They are usually benign but can be malignant. The most common type of benign tumor is the pleomorphic adenoma, followed by tumor Whartin. The most common malignant tumor is the mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    patologia das glandulas salivares

  • Oral Cancer

    Oral cancer can affect the entire visible part of the mouth including the lips. The most frequently affected is the floor of the mouth (under the tongue), the lateral portion of the tongue and soft palate. So it is easily visible to the naked eye both by the patient or the doctor or dentist.
    The most common histological type of tumor is the squamous cell type (like skin). Due to its easy viewing and precursor lesions inspection is the best test for diagnose.

    How can it be detected?

    A health professional examines in detail the inner portion of the mouth looking for white lesions (leukoplakia) or red (erythroplakias). Biopsies can be made of the altered zones of these regions and examined under a microscope for signs of malignancy. Pre-malignant lesions are well described and the early diagnosis of this type of tumor can be accomplished.

    What are the most common risk factors associated with cancer of the mouth?

    Age: Oral cancer is more common in patients over 45 years and increases rapidly up to 65 years

    Smoking: The more a person smokes the greater their risk. Not smoking is the most effective way to prevent this type of cancer.
    Smokers who quit have greatly reduced their risk in the first year of abstaining from smoking. And the risk is being reduced to almost equal to those who never smoked in 10 years if the person stays off cigarettes.

    Alcohol:Drinking alcohol, especially when associated with smoking, is an important risk factor for oral cancer.
    Quanto mais porções a pessoa ingere, maior é o seu risco.
    The more servings a person ingests, the greater your risk. Drinking alcohol in moderation or completely avoiding the intake of alcohol decreases the risk of developing this type of cancer, especially among smokers.

    Gender:: This type of tumor is more common in men than in women.

    Sun exposure:Protecting lips from sun, between 10 and 16 hours with sunscreen or hat, can decrease the likelihood of developing cancer of the lower lip.

    What is the treatment?

    Treatment usually involves surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy depending on the case and should be performed in specialized hospitals. The prognosis is better if detected early so you should regularly visit the dentist/doctor, especially if you smoke or drink alcohol.

    How to prevent?

    People should look at their mouth and look for changes in color of skin and mucous membranes, red and white patches, hardening of soft tissues, hard nodules property and sleeping areas.

    5 steps that can save a life:

    1. Note the upper and lower lips, outside and inside, including the gums.
    2. Look inside of the cheeks, throat and palate (roof of mouth).
    3. Note the tongue, look over the sides and underneath (including the floor of the mouth).
    4. Tap gently on the face and neck, looking for nodules.
    5. Smile at each other and regularly visit a dentist.
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